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Long Lost Member
garrettnada
Total Posts: 1
Registered on: ‎02-18-2010

Psychological Effects of Diabetes

Living with Diabetes: Psychological Effects

Garrett Nada

Senior Project

1/5/10

Diabetes can affect the life of anyone. When my mom was first diagnosed with diabetes, she was very depressed all of the time. �How did this happen to me?� or �Why did this happen to me?� were some of the things she thought to herself. Being depressed is a common side effect of diabetes, along with numerous other side effects. Her health has gone up and down. At some times she is very healthy, and then the other times struggling with her disease. Now she is in the midst of trying to lose weight by dieting, she has gotten a little healthier, and is a little happier. Her mental attitude has also gone up and down with her health. When her health is bad she tends to get more depressed, but when her health is good she is very happy. My father was very fearful when he was first diagnosed with Type II diabetes. One day he went in for a regular checkup where they took a blood test, and it was then that they found out he had diabetes. He had no idea and he did not know anything about his disease, beyond poking himself with insulin everyday (like he saw my mother do everyday). He eventually got over his fear after he learned to control his diabetes, but still remains fearful of insulin.

Todd China is an internal medicine doctor at Straub Hospital, and gave a great deal of information on diabetes, but more importantly, on its psychological effects on the patients. According to China, he sees about twenty patients on a daily basis with at least one of them being diabetic.

Todd China said �People who suffer from the chronic disease known as diabetes may also suffer adverse psychological effects, whether they know it or not, that may impede the way the diabetics act or live everyday. Patients are more resistant to treatment because they are in denial, and patients who become depressed usually need to see a psychiatrist (China). Frequent visits to the doctor are one of the leading causes of the psychological effects of diabetes. Patients think that when they go to the doctor, they will become better just like that. The patients put their trust in their doctor, but sometimes the treatment does not work. Some people have a natural resistance to certain medicines, which makes it hard for doctors to help them (China). When the treatment does not work, the patients become increasingly resistant to treatment and doctors find it harder to get patients to do what needs to be done. They begin to skip their appointments and stop returning calls, and this makes it difficult for us to help them because we cannot contact them (China).

Diabetes cannot be cured at this time, only controlled, and the doctor�s job is to teach patients about healthy living (China). For diabetics, it is good for them to go on diets, such as not eating as many carbohydrates or any sugary foods. Exercise is also important for diabetics, because it is better to be healthy and in shape and to be kept off of insulin. My dad exercises as much as he can, whether it be walking before work or playing tennis with me on weekdays.

My dad has Type II diabetes, which is the most common type of diabetes. As it is related to weight and eating habits it is very difficult to cure. People with Type II diabetes become insulin-resistant. Doctors must teach the patient everything there is to know about diabetes, and also about the different forms of treatment. When my dad first got diabetes, he did not know anything about it. His doctor told him everything he needs to know about diabetes. This involves many tests; an example would be the A1C test which is taken every 3 months to get a blood sugar average. A good score for this test would be under a 7 (which equates to below a 120 on the blood sugar reading). There are also medicines that may help control diabetes. One example of these medicines is Metaformin. My dad needed to take Metaformin tablets when he was first diagnosed with diabetes, because his blood sugar level was too high. The doctor must figure out the right amount of medicine to give, so they depend on the A1C test. This means that the patient must see a doctor on a regular basis. A patient that is very healthy and has an A1C level below 7 may only have to see their doctor every six months, but someone with a higher A1C level they may need to see their doctor every two weeks. These frequent visits, insulin-resistance, fear, denial, and depression help to cause the negative psychological effects of diabetes, which can in turn affect their treatment.

Patients may become non-compliant when the treatment does not work, because they don�t want to be put on insulin. Doctor China said. �Although we give out medicine, there are some people who are resistant to the medicine� (China). My mom was not non-compliant to treatment at the beginning. She exercised everyday with my dad and also dieted and ate all the right foods. But she eventually stopped all of this, saying it was futile for her to continue treatment. She kept saying that she was going to die no matter what she did, so she should just do whatever she wanted. But now she diets and eats all of the right foods. The reason she started to diet was because her doctor told her she needed to lose weight, so she join Weight Watchers.

When someone says insulin-resistance, the first thing that comes to mind is when the body rejects insulin. But many patients do not want to inject insulin into themselves, preferring to put it off. This is another form of insulin-resistance. Patients think of insulin as a last resort, and most patients are resistant to being put on insulin. They are afraid of insulin, and their fear springs from many places. Injecting insulin inside the body is no easy task, and many patients don�t want to feel the pain in their stomach. Some are afraid of complications they may develop later in life. The rest are afraid of taking too much medication (China).

Denial is also another common psychological effect of diabetes. When patients are first diagnosed with diabetes, a common reaction to this is denial. Most patients cannot believe that they have diabetes. Medical doctors rarely treat depression in diabetic patients, instead they will send the patient to a psychiatrist if they may go into denial. Living with diabetes requires a big adjustment; they have to change their lifestyles (China). Changing a lifestyle is not easy. People like to stick to doing whatever they desire, such as eating their favorite foods or drinking their favorite drinks. Giving these up is difficult, and most patients will not listen to these restrictions. Doctors struggle to get patients to use insulin for many reasons, including denial, non-compliance, and resistance to treatment, fear, and even economic barriers (China). Neither my mom nor my dad went into denial when they were first diagnosed with diabetes. My dad did become fearful when he was first diagnosed with diabetes. He told me that he did not know anything about diabetes. He did not know what he had to do and he did not know what went wrong with his lifestyle. But he coped and learned to live with his disease.

Unlike my father, my mother became depressed when she was first diagnosed with diabetes just because she simply had contracted the disease. She thought to herself that it was better to die than to be put on insulin. She thought it was better to die than to live with her diabetes. Being depressed is a proven psychological effect of diabetes. People with diabetes experience depression at a significantly higher rate than do their nondiabetic counterparts (Killbourne). Many people who have diabetes are also put on psychotropics. One study suggests that the association of psychotropics and two obesity-related conditions, hypertension and diabetes, applies to older psychiatric patients as well as younger populations (Kisely). This study shows that there is a proven statistical relationship between psychotropics and diabetes. Psychotropic drugs are antiepileptics, antiparkinsonian drugs, psycholeptics such as antipsychotics, anxiolytics. sedatives and hypnosedatives, and psychoanaleptics such as antidepressants, psychostimulants and antidementia drugs (Schattler). Many depressed people use psychotropics, which are any drug that affects your mind, emotion, or behavior. Most psychotropics increase the serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin is hormone that makes a person happy, but if there is an excess of serotonin in the body it can be lethal.

Higher levels of depression have been associated with several health behaviors and attitudes, in particular less perceived support for physical activity and poorer self-efficacy for diet. Depressive symptoms have also been related to some clinical risk markers, such as higher BMI and fasting insulin levels (Varga).

Diabetes has many proven psychological effects and I have seen some of these psychological effects in my own family, including fear, non-compliance, and depression. Living with diabetics in a family that may have a history for diabetes has shown me that I should learn everything I can about diabetes now, so I can be prepared to deal personally with effects of diabetes. The psychological impacts has proven to be a roadblock in the treatment of diabetes, as most of these symptoms of depression hinder the treatments that a doctor can prescribe. People refuse insulin, and therefore cannot become better, because insulin is the only medication that can help them. Patients go into denial and become non-compliant with treatment, and may sometimes stop seeing their doctor. Although these symptoms hinder treatment education about the disease can help to ease the patient�s fears. After my dad learned about diabetes, his fear went away and he listened to his doctor on his suggestions about what to do about his diabetes. He can now live a pretty normal lifestyle, except for the food restrictions and visits to the doctor for A1C tests. My mom is becoming a little more compliant with her treatment, and I think that she is learning to live with diabetes.



Works Cited:

China, Todd. "Psychological Effects of Diabetes." Personal interview. 18 Dec. 2009.

Kilbourne, Barbara, Sherry M. Cummings, and Robert S. Levine "The Influence of Religiosity on Depression among Low-Income People with Diabetes." Health & Social Work 34.2 (2009): 137-147. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. EBSCO. Web. 14 Dec. 2009.

Kisely, Stephen, et al. "An Epidemiologic Study of Psychotropic Medication and Obesity-Related Chronic Illnesses in Older Psychiatric Patients." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 54.4 (2009): 269-274. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. EBSCO. Web. 14 Dec. 2009.

"Psychotropic drug definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms." Web. 12 Feb. 2010. .

Schlatter, Chantal, et al. "Pharmacokinetic Changes of Psychotropic Drugs in Patients with Liver Disease." Drug Safety 32.7 (2009): 561-578. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 27 Jan. 2010.

Varga, L. I., et al. "Critical review of ropinirole and pramipexole � putative dopamine D -receptor selective agonists � for the treatment of RLS." Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics 34.5 (2009): 493-505. Consumer Health Complete - EBSCOhost. EBSCO. Web. 27 Jan. 2010.

"What are Psychotropic Drugs?" WiseGEEK: clear answers for common questions. Web. 12 Feb. 2010. .

"What is Serotonin?" WiseGEEK: clear answers for common questions. Web. 12 Feb. 2010. .
Long Lost Member
bridget-smyth
Total Posts: 2
Registered on: ‎03-11-2010

Psychological Effects of Diabetes

Thank you for answering a lot of questions that were bothering me as I have lived with diabetes for at least six years and the doctors keep increasing my tablets. I worry about the side effects but know that it is better than heart disease or taking a stroke, blindness. I want to see my great grandchildren.
Long Lost Member
breeze..2..user
Total Posts: 99
Registered on: ‎02-12-2010

Psychological Effects of Diabetes

I read the whole article, but I think a lot of it can only be applied in some cases. I'm 66.. and was only recently found to have type 2 diabetes, with a reading of over 300. At the time I did not feel depressed.. nor do I now. I would think it would effect younger people more so than us who are Senior Citizens.

The way I look at it is.. "So I have diabetes. I'll test twice a day and take my Metformin. Get a little bit of exercise when I take my dog to romp in the woods.. and try to somewhat watch what I eat and drink."

NO.. I don't have the attitude of "so I've got diabetes and I'm going to die sometime anyways", but I'm NOT going to have it totally control and run my life for me. As long as I keep my test readings within a acceptable range (per my Doctor).. and not let it get out of hand, then I'm OK with it.

I know this may not be the best way of doing things, but I base what I eat and drink off of my mg/dl readings. I would go crazy counting calories, counting carbs, counting portion size, counting ingredients, counting this, counting that, etc., etc. As long as I'm keeping my readings along what they're suppose to be.. then I don't worry.

Breeze..2..User
Valued Contributor
ajsammycat
Total Posts: 967
Registered on: ‎10-31-2009

Psychological Effects of Diabetes

Garrett: I'm presuming you might have been looking for some feedback. Am I right? As a former psychology professor, I thought I would give you some. Some of the comments deal with grammar and style issues (starting three (short) sentences in a row with the exact same words is, in expository writing, not considered "good form", for instance), whereas other comments are more substantive in nature (i.e. they deal with your basic thesis/idea). You can take them or leave them as you'd like. Since you call this your "Senior Project", I presume this is something to be turned in closer to the end of the academic year. Further, I am also assuming you are not done with this project and if you find my suggestions helpful, you have some time to integrate them into the paper before turning it in. I tried to highlight my suggestions within your text , as I did here.

Garrett Nada (2/18/2010)
Living with Diabetes: Psychological Effects

Garrett Nada

Senior Project

1/5/10

Diabetes can affect the life of anyone. When my mom was first diagnosed with diabetes, she was very depressed all of the time. �How did this happen to me?� or �Why did this happen to me?� were some of the things she thought to herself. Being depressed is a common side effect of diabetes, along with numerous other side effects. Her health has gone up and down. At some times she is very healthy, and then the other times struggling with her disease. Now she is in the midst of trying to lose weight by dieting, she has gotten a little healthier, and is a little happier. Her mental attitude has also gone up and down with her health. When her health is bad she tends to get more depressed, but when her health is good she is very happy. My father was very fearful when he was first diagnosed with Type II diabetes. One day he went in for a regular checkup where they took a blood test, and it was then that they found out he had diabetes . He had no idea and he did not know anything about his disease, beyond poking himself with insulin everyday (like he saw my mother do everyday). He eventually got over his fear after he learned to control his diabetes, but still remains fearful of insulin.

Todd China is an internal medicine doctor at Straub Hospital, and gave a great deal of information on diabetes, but more importantly, on its psychological effects on the patients. According to China, he sees about twenty patients on a daily basis with at least one of them being diabetic.

Todd China said �People who suffer from the chronic disease known as diabetes may also suffer adverse psychological effects, whether they know it or not, that may impede the way the diabetics act or live everyday. Patients are more resistant to treatment because they are in denial, and patients who become depressed usually need to see a psychiatrist (China). Frequent visits to the doctor are one of the leading causes of the psychological effects of diabetes. Patients think that when they go to the doctor, they will become better just like that. The patients put their trust in their doctor, but sometimes the treatment does not work. Some people have a natural resistance to certain medicines, which makes it hard for doctors to help them (China). When the treatment does not work, the patients become increasingly resistant to treatment and doctors find it harder to get patients to do what needs to be done. They begin to skip their appointments and stop returning calls, and this makes it difficult for us to help them because we cannot contact them (China).

Diabetes cannot be cured at this time, only controlled, and the doctor�s job is to teach patients about healthy living (China). For diabetics, it is good for them to go on diets, such as not eating as many carbohydrates or any sugary foods . Exercise is also important for diabetics, because it is better to be healthy and in shape and to be kept off of insulin . My dad exercises as much as he can, whether it be walking before work or playing tennis with me on weekdays.

My dad has Type II diabetes, which is the most common type of diabetes. As it is related to weight and eating habits it is very difficult to cure . People with Type II diabetes become insulin-resistant. Doctors must teach the patient everything there is to know about diabetes, and also about the different forms of treatment. When my dad first got diabetes, he did not know anything about it. His doctor told him everything he needs to know about diabetes. This involves many tests ; an example would be the A1C test which is taken every 3 months to get a blood sugar average. A good score for this test would be under a 7 (which equates to below a 120 on the blood sugar reading). There are also medicines that may help control diabetes. One example of these medicines is Metaformin. My dad needed to take Metaformin tablets when he was first diagnosed with diabetes, because his blood sugar level was too high. The doctor must figure out the right amount of medicine to give, so they depend on the A1C test. This means that the patient must see a doctor on a regular basis. A patient that is very healthy and has an A1C level below 7 may only have to see their doctor every six months, but someone with a higher A1C level they may need to see their doctor every two weeks. These frequent visits, insulin-resistance, fear, denial, and depression help to cause the negative psychological effects of diabetes, which can in turn affect their treatment.

Patients may become non-compliant when the treatment does not work, because they don�t want to be put on insulin. Doctor China said. �Although we give out medicine, there are some people who are resistant to the medicine� (China) . My mom was not non-compliant to treatment at the beginning. She exercised everyday with my dad and also dieted and ate all the right foods. But she eventually stopped all of this, saying it was futile for her to continue treatment. She kept saying that she was going to die no matter what she did, so she should just do whatever she wanted. But now she diets and eats all of the right foods. The reason she started to diet was because her doctor told her she needed to lose weight, so she join Weight Watchers.

When someone says insulin-resistance, the first thing that comes to mind is when the body rejects insulin. But many patients do not want to inject insulin into themselves, preferring to put it off. This is another form of insulin-resistance. Patients think of insulin as a last resort, and most patients are resistant to being put on insulin. They are afraid of insulin, and their fear springs from many places. Injecting insulin inside the body is no easy task, and many patients don�t want to feel the pain in their stomach. Some are afraid of complications they may develop later in life. The rest are afraid of taking too much medication (China).

Denial is also another common psychological effect of diabetes. When patients are first diagnosed with diabetes, a common reaction to this is denial. Most patients cannot believe that they have diabetes. Medical doctors rarely treat depression in diabetic patients, instead they will send the patient to a psychiatrist if they may go into denial. Living with diabetes requires a big adjustment; they have to change their lifestyles (China). Changing a lifestyle is not easy. People like to stick to doing whatever they desire, such as eating their favorite foods or drinking their favorite drinks. Giving these up is difficult, and most patients will not listen to these restrictions. Doctors struggle to get patients to use insulin for many reasons, including denial, non-compliance, and resistance to treatment, fear, and even economic barriers (China). Neither my mom nor my dad went into denial when they were first diagnosed with diabetes. My dad did become fearful when he was first diagnosed with diabetes. He told me that he did not know anything about diabetes. He did not know what he had to do and he did not know what went wrong with his lifestyle. But he coped and learned to live with his disease.

Unlike my father, my mother became depressed when she was first diagnosed with diabetes just because she simply had contracted the disease. She thought to herself that it was better to die than to be put on insulin. She thought it was better to die than to live with her diabetes. Being depressed is a proven psychological effect of diabetes . People with diabetes experience depression at a significantly higher rate than do their nondiabetic counterparts (Killbourne). Many people who have diabetes are also put on psychotropics. One study suggests that the association of psychotropics and two obesity-related conditions, hypertension and diabetes, applies to older psychiatric patients as well as younger populations (Kisely). This study shows that there is a proven statistical relationship between psychotropics and diabetes. Psychotropic drugs are antiepileptics, antiparkinsonian drugs, psycholeptics such as antipsychotics, anxiolytics. sedatives and hypnosedatives, and psychoanaleptics such as antidepressants, psychostimulants and antidementia drugs (Schattler). Many depressed people use psychotropics, which are any drug that affects your mind, emotion, or behavior. Most psychotropics increase the serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin is hormone that makes a person happy, but if there is an excess of serotonin in the body it can be lethal .

Higher levels of depression have been associated with several health behaviors and attitudes, in particular less perceived support for physical activity and poorer self-efficacy for diet. Depressive symptoms have also been related to some clinical risk markers, such as higher BMI and fasting insulin levels (Varga).

Diabetes has many proven psychological effects and I have seen some of these psychological effects in my own family, including fear, non-compliance, and depression. Living with diabetics in a family that may have a history for diabetes has shown me that I should learn everything I can about diabetes now, so I can be prepared to deal personally with effects of diabetes. The psychological impacts has proven to be a roadblock in the treatment of diabetes, as most of these symptoms of depression hinder the treatments that a doctor can prescribe. People refuse insulin, and therefore cannot become better, because insulin is the only medication that can help them. Patients go into denial and become non-compliant with treatment, and may sometimes stop seeing their doctor. Although these symptoms hinder treatment education about the disease can help to ease the patient�s fears. After my dad learned about diabetes, his fear went away and he listened to his doctor on his suggestions about what to do about his diabetes. He can now live a pretty normal lifestyle, except for the food restrictions and visits to the doctor for A1C tests. My mom is becoming a little more compliant with her treatment, and I think that she is learning to live with diabetes.

Works Cited:

China, Todd. "Psychological Effects of Diabetes." Personal interview. 18 Dec. 2009.

Kilbourne, Barbara, Sherry M. Cummings, and Robert S. Levine "The Influence of Religiosity on Depression among Low-Income People with Diabetes." Health & Social Work 34.2 (2009): 137-147. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. EBSCO. Web. 14 Dec. 2009.

Kisely, Stephen, et al. "An Epidemiologic Study of Psychotropic Medication and Obesity-Related Chronic Illnesses in Older Psychiatric Patients." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 54.4 (2009): 269-274. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. EBSCO. Web. 14 Dec. 2009.

"Psychotropic drug definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms." Web. 12 Feb. 2010. .

Schlatter, Chantal, et al. "Pharmacokinetic Changes of Psychotropic Drugs in Patients with Liver Disease." Drug Safety 32.7 (2009): 561-578. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 27 Jan. 2010.

Varga, L. I., et al. "Critical review of ropinirole and pramipexole � putative dopamine D -receptor selective agonists � for the treatment of RLS." Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics 34.5 (2009): 493-505. Consumer Health Complete - EBSCOhost. EBSCO. Web. 27 Jan. 2010.

"What are Psychotropic Drugs?" WiseGEEK: clear answers for common questions. Web. 12 Feb. 2010. .

"What is Serotonin?" WiseGEEK: clear answers for common questions. Web. 12 Feb. 2010.


Some overall recommendations: First, I think you should try to focus your topic a bit better. Do you want to discuss general mental health issues as related to diabetes, such as the high instance of depression, eating disorders, and other mental health issues that go along with diabetes? Are you interested in focusing exclusively on depression? Are you trying to make the case that depression is a component in psychological resistance to insulin use? Focusing your topic should help make your paper more engaging and will help make your point more forcefully. Second, I would encourage you to have a few friends read your paper and give you feedback. I'm sure you've done that, but there's no harm in reinforcing the idea.

I would recommend reading Psyching Out Diabetes, by June Biermann, Barbara Toohey, and Richard Rubin, What's So Tough About Taking Insulin?, by William Polonsky, and Psychological Insulin Resistance in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, also by William Polonsky and Steven Edleman (and others). These sources may help improve your paper by giving it some more support.

Good luck.

Angela